Amber M Paul

Assistant Professor
Human Factors and Behavioral Neurobiology
College of Arts & Sciences

Office Hours

COAS 401.02 (by appointment)

Areas of Expertise


Molecular Biology



Systems Biology

Neuroendocrine Biology

Space Biology

Amber M Paul

Amber M. Paul, Ph.D., is the Embry-Riddle Wessel Fellow. Dr. Paul received her BSc in Immunology from the University of Alberta, Canada and Ph.D. in Molecular Biology from the University of Southern Mississippi.  She completed postdoctoral training at NASA Ames Research Center as a Universities Space Research Association fellow and is a Blue Marble Space Institute of Science visiting scholar. Dr. Paul's research focuses on immunity and neuroendocrine crosstalk in extreme environmental conditions. She is interested how physiological stress in both acute and chronic settings influences immunity.  Her goal is to identify signaling pathways involved and develop countermeasures that can circumvent these impacts.  Dr. Paul’s research is currently supported by NASA's Human Research Program. She is the director of the The Omics Lab for Health and Human Performance.

  • Ph.D. - Doctor of Philosophy in Biological Sciences: Molecular Biology, University of Southern Mississippi

  • BIO 335: Cell Signaling and Disease
  • BIO 440: Clinical Rotation
  • BIO 215: Genetics

BIO499 - Immunology

An R, Blackwell VK, Harandi B, Gibbons AC, Siu O, Irby I, Rees A, Cornejal N, Sattler K, Sheng T, Syracuse N, Loftus D, Santa Maria SR, Cekanaviciute E, Reinsch SS, Ray HE, and Paul AM. Influence of the Spaceflight Environment on Macrophage Lineages. npj Microgravity. 2023. Embargoed.

Burke M, Wong K, Talyansky Y, Mhatre SD, Mitchell C, Juran CM, Olson M, Iyer J, Puukila S, Tahimic CGT, Christenson LK, Lowe M, Rubinstein L, Shirazi-Fard Y, Sowa MB, Alwood JS, Ronca AE and Paul AM. Sexual Dimorphism during Integrative Endocrine and Immune Responses to Ionizing Radiation in Mice. Nature Scientific Reports. 2023. Embargoed. Preprint doi:

Hicks J, Olson M, Mitchell C, Juran CM, Paul AM. The Impact of Microgravity on Immunological States. Immunohorizons. 2023 Oct 1;7(10):670-682.

Puukila S, Siu O, Rubinstein L, Tahimic CGT, Lowe M, Ruiz ST, Korostenskij I, Semel M, Iyer J, Mhatre SD, Shirazi-Fard Y, Alwood JS, Paul AM and Ronca AE. (2023) Galactic Cosmic Irradiation Alters Acute and Delated Species-Typical Behavior in Male and Female Mice. Life, May 19, 13 (5), 1214.

Sun H, Acharya D, Paul AM, Lai H, He J, Bai F and Chen Q. (2023) Antibody-Dependent Enhancement Activity of a Plant-Made Vaccine against West Nile Virus. Vaccines, Jan 17, 11 (2), 197.

Duty L and Paul AM (2022) Isolation of Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Neutrophils for Infection Modeling. West Nile Virus: Methods and Protocols, Nov 5, 239, 33-40.

Mhatre SD, Iyer J, Puukila S, Paul AM, Tahimic CGT, Rubinstein L, Lowe M, Alwood JS, Sowa MB, Bhattacharya S, Globus RK, Ronca AE. Neuro-consequences of the spaceflight environment. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Jan 2022; 132 (908-935). PMID: 34767877.

Cahill T, Cope H, Bass JJ, Overbey EG, Gilbert R, da Silveira WA, Paul AM, Mishra T, Herranz R, Reinsch SS, Costes SV, Hardiman G, Szewczyk NJ, Tahimic CGT. Mammalian and invertebrate models as complementary tools for gaining mechanistic insight on muscle responses to spaceflight. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. Aug 2021; 22(17):9470. PMID: 34502375.

Paul AM*, Overbey EG, da Silveira WA, Szewczyk N, Nishiyama NC, Pecaut MJ, Anand S, Galazka JM, Mao XW. Immunological and hematological outcomes following protracted low dose/low dose rate ionizing radiation and simulated microgravity. Sci Rep. 2021 Jun 1;11(1):11452. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-90439-5. PMID: 34075076; PMCID: PMC8169688.*Corresponding author.

Paul AM*, Rubinstein L*, Houseman C, Abegaz M, Tabares Ruiz S, O'Neil N, Kunis G, Ofir R, Cohen J, Ronca AE, Globus RK, Tahimic CGT. Placenta-Expanded Stromal Cell Therapy in a Rodent Model of Simulated Weightlessness. Cells. 2021 Apr 19;10(4):940. doi: 10.3390/cells10040940. PMID: 33921854; PMCID: PMC8073415. *Co-first authors.

Paul AM, Baselet B, Gunga, H-C, Crucian B, and Chouker A (co-guest editors). Deciphering Immune and Neuroendocrine Crosstalk in Extreme Environments. Special Topics Issue. 2021. Frontiers in Immunology, Frontiers in Neurology, Frontiers in Physiology, Frontiers in Endocrinology, and Frontiers in Neuroscience (co-participating journals).

Nelson CA, Acuna AU, Paul AM, Scott RT, Butte AJ, Cekanaviciute E, Baranzini SE, Costes SV. Knowledge Network Embedding of Transcriptomic Data from Spaceflown Mice Uncovers Signs and Symptoms Associated with Terrestrial Diseases. Life (Basel). 2021 Jan 12;11(1):42. doi: 10.3390/life11010042. PMID: 33445483; PMCID: PMC7828077.Wuu Y-R, Hu B, Okunola H, Paul AM, Blaber EA, Cheng-Campbell M, Beheshti A, and Grabham P. LET-Dependent Low Dose and Synergistic Inhibition of Human Angiogenesis by Charged Particles: Validation of miRNAs that Drive Inhibition. iScience. 2020, Nov 25; 23(12): 101771. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2020.101771.

Paul AM, Cheng-Campbell M, Blaber EA, Anand S, Bhattacharya S, Zwart SR, Crucian BE, Smith SM, Meller R, Grabham P, Beheshti A. Beyond Low-Earth Orbit: Characterizing Immune and microRNA Differentials following Simulated Deep Spaceflight Conditions in Mice. iScience. 2020 Nov 25;23(12):101747. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2020.101747. PMID: 33376970; PMCID: PMC7756144.Paul AM, Mhatre SD, Cekanaviciute E, Schreurs A-S, Tahimic CGT, Globus RK, Anand S, Crucian BE, and Bhattacharya S. Neutrophil to Lymphocyte ratio: A biomarker to monitor the immune status of astronauts. Front. Immun. 2020. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.564950. 

Wuu YR, Hu B, Okunola H, Paul AM, Blaber EA, Cheng-Campbell M, Beheshti A, Grabham P. LET-Dependent Low Dose and Synergistic Inhibition of Human Angiogenesis by Charged Particles: Validation of miRNAs that Drive Inhibition. iScience. 2020 Nov 25;23(12):101771. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2020.101771. PMID: 33376971; PMCID: PMC7756138.

Paul AM, Mhatre SD, Cekanaviciute E, Schreurs AS, Tahimic CGT, Globus RK, Anand S, Crucian BE, Bhattacharya S. Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio: A Biomarker to Monitor the Immune Status of Astronauts. Front Immunol. 2020 Nov 2;11:564950. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.564950. PMID: 33224136; PMCID: PMC7667275.

Tahimic CGT, Paul AM, Schreurs AS, Torres SM, Rubinstein L, Steczina S, Lowe M, Bhattacharya S, Alwood JS, Ronca AE, Globus RK. Influence of Social Isolation During Prolonged Simulated Weightlessness by Hindlimb Unloading. Front Physiol. 2019 Sep 13;10:1147. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2019.01147. PMID: 31572207; PMCID: PMC6753329.

Paul AM*, Overbey EG*, da Silveira WA, Tahimic CGT, Reinsch SS, Szewczyk N, Stanbouly S, Wang C, Galazka JM, Mao XW. Mice Exposed to Combined Chronic Low-Dose Irradiation and Modeled Microgravity Develop Long-Term Neurological Sequelae. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Aug 22;20(17):4094. doi: 10.3390/ijms20174094. PMID: 31443374; PMCID: PMC6747492. *Co-first authors.

Vig PJS, Lu D, Paul AM, Kuwar R, Lopez M, Stokic DS, Leis AA, Garrett MR, Bai F. Differential Expression of Genes Related to Innate Immune Responses in Ex Vivo Spinal Cord and Cerebellar Slice Cultures Infected with West Nile Virus. Brain Sci. 2018 Dec 24;9(1):1. doi: 10.3390/brainsci9010001. PMID: 30586874; PMCID: PMC6356470.

Paul AM, Acharya D, Neupane B, Thompson EA, Gonzalez-Fernandez G, Copeland KM, Garrett M, Liu H, Lopez ME, de Cruz M, Flynt A, Liao J, Guo YL, Gonzalez-Fernandez F, Vig PJS, Bai F. Congenital Zika Virus Infection in Immunocompetent Mice Causes Postnatal Growth Impediment and Neurobehavioral Deficits. Front Microbiol. 2018 Aug 29;9:2028. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02028. PMID: 30210488; PMCID: PMC6124374.

Jung J, Eggleton P, Robinson A, Wang J, Gutowski N, Holley J, Newcombe J, Dudek E, Paul AM, Zochodne D, Kraus A, Power C, Agellon LB, Michalak M. Calnexin is necessary for T cell transmigration into the central nervous system. JCI Insight. 2018 Mar 8;3(5):e98410. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.98410. PMID: 29515033; PMCID: PMC5922283.

Lai H, Paul AM, Sun H, He J, Yang M, Bai F, Chen Q. A plant-produced vaccine protects mice against lethal West Nile virus infection without enhancing Zika or dengue virus infectivity. Vaccine. 2018 Mar 27;36(14):1846-1852. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.02.073. Epub 2018 Feb 26. PMID: 29490880; PMCID: PMC5851867.

Paul AM, Acharya D, Duty L, Thompson EA, Le L, Stokic DS, Leis AA, Bai F. Osteopontin facilitates West Nile virus neuroinvasion via neutrophil "Trojan horse" transport. Sci Rep. 2017 Jul 5;7(1):4722. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-04839-7. PMID: 28680095; PMCID: PMC5498593.

Dent M, Hurtado J, Paul AM, Sun H, Lai H, Yang M, Esqueda A, Bai F, Steinkellner H, Chen Q. Plant-produced anti-dengue virus monoclonal antibodies exhibit reduced antibody-dependent enhancement of infection activity. J Gen Virol. 2016 Dec;97(12):3280-3290. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.000635. Epub 2016 Oct 20. PMID: 27902333; PMCID: PMC5756494.

Acharya D, Wang P, Paul AM, Dai J, Gate D, Lowery JE, Stokic DS, Leis AA, Flavell RA, Town T, Fikrig E, Bai F. Interleukin-17A Promotes CD8+ T Cell Cytotoxicity To Facilitate West Nile Virus Clearance. J Virol. 2016 Dec 16;91(1):e01529-16. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01529-16. PMID: 27795421; PMCID: PMC5165211.

Paul AM, Acharya D, Le L, Wang P, Stokic DS, Leis AA, Alexopoulou L, Town T, Flavell RA, Fikrig E, Bai F. TLR8 Couples SOCS-1 and Restrains TLR7-Mediated Antiviral Immunity, Exacerbating West Nile Virus Infection in Mice. J Immunol. 2016 Dec 1;197(11):4425-4435. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1600902. Epub 2016 Oct 21. PMID: 27798161; PMCID: PMC5123688. *Article featured in this issue.

Acharya D, Bastola P, Le L, Paul AM, Fernandez E, Diamond MS, Miao W, Bai F. An ultrasensitive electrogenerated chemiluminescence-based immunoassay for specific detection of Zika virus. Sci Rep. 2016 Aug 24;6:32227. doi: 10.1038/srep32227. PMID: 27554037; PMCID: PMC4995374.

Paul AM, Fan Z, Sinha SS, Shi Y, Le L, Bai F, Ray PC. Bio-Conjugated Gold Nanoparticle Based SERS Probe for Ultrasensitive Identification of Mosquito-Borne Viruses Using Raman Fingerprinting. J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces. 2015 Oct 15;119(41):23669-23775. doi: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b07387. Epub 2015 Sep 22. PMID: 27441043; PMCID: PMC4948854.

Kuwar RB, Stokic DS, Leis AA, Bai F, Paul AM, Fratkin JD, Vig PJ. Does astroglial protein S100B contribute to West Nile neuro-invasive syndrome? J Neurol Sci. 2015 Nov 15;358(1-2):243-52. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2015.09.003. Epub 2015 Sep 4. PMID: 26382833.Acharya D, Paul AM, Anderson JF, Huang F and Bai F. Loss of Glycosaminoglycan Receptor Binding after Mosquito Cell Passage Reduces Chikungunya Virus Infectivity. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 2015. Oct 20; 9(10): e0004139.

Paul AM, Shi Y, Acharya D, Douglas JR, Cooley A, Anderson JF, Huang F, Bai F. Delivery of antiviral small interfering RNA with gold nanoparticles inhibits dengue virus infection in vitro. J Gen Virol. 2014 Aug;95(Pt 8):1712-1722. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.066084-0. Epub 2014 May 14. PMID: 24828333; PMCID: PMC4103068.

Paul AM, Huang F and Bai F. Gold nanoparticle-mediated delivery of siRNA: a promising strategy in the treatment of mosquito-borne viral diseases? Fut. Vir. 2014. Vol. 9, No. 11, Pages 931-934, doi 10.2217/fvl.14.64.

Wang R, Wang J, Acharya D, Paul AM, Bai F, Huang F, Guo YL. Antiviral responses in mouse embryonic stem cells: differential development of cellular mechanisms in type I interferon production and response. J Biol Chem. 2014 Sep 5;289(36):25186-98. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.537746. Epub 2014 Jun 25. PMID: 24966329; PMCID: PMC4155682.

Paul AM, Branton WG, Walsh JG, Polyak MJ, Lu JQ, Baker GB, Power C. GABA transport and neuroinflammation are coupled in multiple sclerosis: regulation of the GABA transporter-2 by ganaxolone. Neuroscience. 2014 Jul 25;273:24-38. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.04.037. Epub 2014 May 9. PMID: 24814730.

Acharjee S, Branton WG, Vivithanaporn P, Maingat F, Paul AM, Dickie P, Baker GB, Power C. HIV-1 Nef expression in microglia disrupts dopaminergic and immune functions with associated mania-like behaviors. Brain Behav Immun. 2014 Aug;40:74-84. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2014.02.016. Epub 2014 Mar 4. PMID: 24607605.

Wang R, Wang J, Paul AM, Acharya D, Bai F, Huang F, Guo YL. Mouse embryonic stem cells are deficient in type I interferon expression in response to viral infections and double-stranded RNA. J Biol Chem. 2013 May 31;288(22):15926-36. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.421438. Epub 2013 Apr 11. PMID: 23580653; PMCID: PMC3668748.

Maingat FG, Polyak MJ, Paul AM, Vivithanaporn P, Noorbakhsh F, Ahboucha S, Baker GB, Pearson K, Power C. Neurosteroid-mediated regulation of brain innate immunity in HIV/AIDS: DHEA-S suppresses neurovirulence. FASEB J. 2013 Feb;27(2):725-37. doi: 10.1096/fj.12-215079. Epub 2012 Nov 12. PMID: 23150523.

Deslauriers AM, Afkhami-Goli A, Paul AM, Bhat RK, Acharjee S, Ellestad KK, Noorbakhsh F, Michalak M, Power C. Neuroinflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress are coregulated by crocin to prevent demyelination and neurodegeneration. J Immunol. 2011 Nov 1;187(9):4788-99. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1004111. Epub 2011 Sep 30. PMID: 21964030.

Visting Scholar, Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, NASA Ames Research Center, Space Biosciences Division (2021-present)

Adjoint Professor, Department of Human Factors and Behavioral Neurobiology, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (2021)

NASA Postdoctoral Position (NPP) Fellow, Universities Space Research Association (USRA), NASA Ames Research Center (2017-2021)

Canadian Space Ambassadors - Canadian Space Agency, 2021-present

American Association of Immunologists (AAI), 2015-present

American Society for Gravitational and Space Research (ASGSR), 2018-present 

NASA GeneLab Animal and Educational Working Group (AWG/EWG), 2018-present

Radiation Research Society (RADRES), 2021-present

Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA), 2021-present

Canadian Space Agency (CSA), Canadian Space Ambassador, 2021-present

Radiation Research Society awardee, ICRR2021

American Association of Immunologists, Immunology Conference Awardee, 2021

Outstanding Postdoctoral Presentation, Human Research Program Investigators Workshop, 2021

Artistic Merit (Astroimmunity), American Society for Gravitational Space Research Conference, 2019

NASA GeneLab Award, American Society for Gravitational Space Research Conference, 2019

NASA Ames Honor Award, MVP-FLY-01 Team Award, NASA Ames Research Center, 2018

ProQuest Distinguished Dissertation Award, University of Southern Mississippi, 2017

Outstanding Doctoral Student of the Year, College of Science & Technology, University of Southern Mississippi, 2016

American Association of Immunologists, Immunology Conference Awardee, 2015

Outstanding Presentation Award, Mississippi Academy of Science, 2013

Best Foundational Advance, International Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) Competition, 2009