Scott Richard Winter

Title
Associate Professor and Program Coordinator for M.S. in Unmanned Systems
Email
Department
School of Graduate Studies (SGS)
College
College of Aviation

Areas of Expertise

Consumer Perceptions, Aviation Safety, Human Factors, Research Methods, Statistics
Scott Richard Winter


Dr. Scott R. Winter is an Assistant Professor of Graduate Studies in the School of Graduate Studies, College of Aviation at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach. His primary responsibilities involve teaching graduate-level courses in research methods, quantitative data analysis, and qualitative data analysis.

Dr. Winter maintains an active research agenda, which focuses on pilot decision-making and consumer perceptions toward automation. His recent focus has been dealing with urban air mobility (UAM) and autonomous air taxis. He has authored/co-authored over 65 peer-refereed journal articles, over 85 conference proceedings, and conducted more than $1.2M in external funding. He is currently working with 8 Ph.D. students as their dissertation chair, and he serves as a committee member on six other dissertation committees.

Dr. Winter completed his Ph.D. in the Aviation Technology Department at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana (2013) and his undergraduate and master’s degree at Minnesota State University, Mankato. His Bachelor’s degree was in professional flight with a minor in geography (2005), and his Master’s degree was in Cross-Disciplinary Studies (2006) with emphasis areas on aviation and education.

For his time in industry, Dr. Winter was employed with Cirrus Aircraft in Duluth, Minnesota from October 2006 until December 2009. While employed with Cirrus, he worked as a member of the Flight Standards and Operations Department. In that role, he served as a company check airman and provided initial and recurrent training to company pilots. Dr. Winter also wrote a monthly website called Pilot’s World that addressed safety and pilot training issues. His time at Cirrus offered him the opportunity to gain experience working for one of the world’s leading general aviation manufacturers and to fly one of the most advanced single-engine piston aircraft. He completed international training at Cirrus where he flew training missions in South Africa, Australia, Brazil, the Caribbean, England, France, Germany, and Poland.


  • Ph.D. - Doctor of Philosophy in Technology, Purdue University-Main Campus
  • M.S. - Master of Science in Cross-Disciplinary Studies, Minnesota State University-Mankato
  • B.S. - Bachelor of Science in Aviation: Professional Flight and Geography, Minnesota State University-Mankato

  • Flight Instructor - Federal Aviation Administration
  • Airline Transport Pilot - Federal Aviation Administration
  • Ground Instructor - Federal Aviation Administration

DAV 721 - Quantitative Research Methods in Aviation

MSA 662 - Statistical Analysis for Aviation and Aerospace

DAV 725 - Research Methods

DAV 733 - Globalization and the Aviation Environment



Recent Peer-Refereed Journal Publications (last 50) (* denotes student author):

1.         Winter, S. R., *Lamb, T. L., & *Baugh, B. S. (Accepted). Passenger perceptions on sustainable propulsion systems: Which factors mediate or moderate the relationship? The International Journal of Sustainable Aviation.

2.         Ruskin, K. J., Corvin, C., Rice, S., & Winter, S. R. (Accepted). Autopilots in the operating room: Safe use of automated medical technology. Anesthesiology.

3.         *Anania, E. C., Rice, S., Winter, S. R. (2020). Building a predictive model of U.S. patient willingness to undergo robotic surgery. Journal of Robotic Surgery. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11701-020-01092-5

4.         Rice, S. & Winter, S. R. (2020). A practical guide for using electronic surveys in aviation research: Best practices explained. The International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace, 7(2), 1-12.

5.         *Ragbir, N. K., Rice, S., Winter, S. R., Choy, E. C., & *Milner, M. N. (2020). How weather, distance, flight time, and geography affect consumer willingness to fly in autonomous air taxis. Collegiate Aviation Review International, 38(1), 69-87.

6.         Rice, S., Winter, S. R., *Capps, J., *Trombley, J., Robbins, J. *Milner, M. N., & Lamb, T. L. (2020). Creation of two valid scales: Willingness to fly in an aircraft and willingness to pilot an aircraft. The International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace, 7(1), 1-21.

7.         *Milner, M. N., Winter, S. R., Mehta, R., Rice, S., *Pierce, M., Anania, E., Candelaria-Oquendo, K., Garcia, D., & Walters, N. (Accepted). Patient perceptions of interactive mobile health care apps: A predictive model. International Journal of Healthcare Technology and Management.

8.         Winter, S. R., Rice, S., *Capps, J., *Trombley, J., *Milner, M. N., *Anania, E. C., *Walters, N. W., & *Baugh, B. S. (2020). An analysis of a pilot’s adherence to their personal weather minimums. Safety Science, 123, 1-7.

9.         Mehta, R., Rice, S., Winter, S. R., Anania, E. C., *Baugh, B. S., & *Milner, M. N. (2020). Determining the predictors for ease of sleep while on aircraft: Regression and qualitative analyses. Journal of Air Transport Management, 83, 1-8.

10.      Mehta, R., Rice, S., Deaton, J., & Winter, S. R. (2019). Creating a prediction model of passenger preference between legacy and low-cost airlines. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 3, 1-10.

11.      *Milner, M. N., Anania, E. C., Candelaria-Oquendo, K., Rice, S., Winter, S. R., & *Ragbir, N. (2019). Patient perceptions of new robotic technologies in clinical restorative dentistry. Journal of Medical Systems, 44(2), 1-10.

12.      *Baugh, B. S. & Winter, S. R. (2019). A trust in air traffic controllers (T-ATC) scale. The International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace, 6(5), 1-12.

13.      Mehta, R., Rice, S., Winter, S. R., Spence, T. B., *Edwards, M., & *Candelaria-Oquendo, K. (2019). Generalizability of effect sizes within aviation research: More samples are needed. The International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace, 6(5), 1-18.

14.      Winter, S. R., Thropp, J. E., & Rice, S. (2019). What factors predict a consumer’s support of environmental sustainability in aviation? A multi-model analysis. The International Journal of Sustainable Aviation, 5(3), 190-204.

15.      Rice, S., Winter, S. R., & O’Toole, N. M. (2019). There is a bias in aviation against research that is perceived to be “easy.” The International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace, 6(4), 1-14.

16.      Winter, S. R., Truong, D, & Keebler, J. R. (2019). The flight risk perception scale (FRPS): A modified risk perception scale for measuring risk of pilots in aviation. The International Journal of Aviation Research, 11(1), 57-72.

17.      Winter, S. R. (2019). Government seat pitch regulation of commercial airlines: A multi-study of consumer perceptions. Collegiate Aviation Review International, 37(2), 1-15.

18.      *Milner, M. N., *Bush, D. Z., *Anania, E. C., *Ito, T., *Marte, D. A., Rice, S., & Winter, S. R. (2019). Cultural and political attitudes towards paying to support airport sustainability projects. International Journal of Sustainable Aviation, 5(1), 54-69.

19.      Winter, S. R. & *Trombley, J. (2019). A prediction model for the type of consumer willing to travel to and live on Mars. The International Journal of Aviation Research, 11(1), 36-56.

20.      *Milner, M. N., Rice, S., Winter, S. R., & *Anania, E. C. (2019). The effect of political affiliation on support for police drone monitoring. Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems, 7(2), 129-144.

21.      Rice, S. & Winter, S. R. (2019). Do gender and age affect willingness to ride in driverless vehicles: If so, then why? Technology in Society, 58, 1-7.

22.      Rice, S., Winter, S. R., Mehta, R., & *Ragbir, N. K. (2019). What factors predict the type of person who is willing to fly in an autonomous commercial airplane? Journal of Air Transport Management, 75, 131-138.

23.      *Anania, E.C., Rice, S., *Pierce, M., Winter, S.R., *Capps, J., *Walters, N. & *Milner, M. (2019). Public support for police drone missions depends on political affiliation and neighborhood demographics. Technology in Society, 57, 95-103.

24.      Winter, S. R., *Milner, M. N., *Anania, E.C., Rice, S., *Walters, N. W., *Garcia, D., & *Baugh, B. S. (2019). Examining the perception and effectiveness of a system awareness briefing during cruise flight. Collegiate Aviation Review International, 37(1), 1-18.

25.      Rice, S., Winter, S. R., Mehta, R., Keebler, J. R., *Baugh, B. S., *Anania, E. C., & *Milner, M. N. (2019). Does length of ride, gender or nationality affect willingness to ride in a driverless ambulance. Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems, 7, 39-55.

26.      *Marte, D. A., *Anania, E. C., Rice, S., Mehta, R., *Milner, M. N., Winter, S. R., *Walters, N., *Capps, J., & *Ragbir, N. (2018). What type of person supports 24/7 police drones over neighborhoods? A regression analysis. Journal of Unmanned Aerial Systems, 4(1), 61-70.

27.      Winter, S. R., Rice, S., Mehta, R., *Walters, N. W., *Pierce, M. B., *Anania, E. C., *Milner, M. N., & Rao, N. (2018). Do Americans differ in their willingness to ride in a driverless bus? Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems, 6(4), 267-278.

28.      Rice, S., Winter, S. R., *Anania, E. C., Tamilselvan, G., & Doherty, S. (2018). Commercial airline pilots’ attitudinal data on controlled rest in position: A qualitative inquiry. Collegiate Aviation Review International, 36(2), 71-91.

29.      *Ragbir, N. K., *Baugh, B. S., Rice, S., & Winter, S. R. (2018). How nationality, weather, wind, and distance affect consumer willingness to fly in autonomous airplanes. Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering, 8(1), 2-10.

30.      Winter, S.R., Keebler, J. R., Rice, S., Mehta, R., & *Baugh, B.S. (2018). Patient perceptions on the use of an autonomous emergency medical transport: An affective perspective. Transportation Research Part F, 58, 431-441.

31.      *Walters, N. W., Rice, S., Winter, S. R., *Baugh, B. S., *Ragbir, N. K., *Anania, E. C., *Capps, J., & *Milner, M. N. (2018). Consumer willingness to pay for new airports that use renewable resources. The International Journal of Sustainable Aviation, 4(2), 79-98.

32.      *Anania, E.C., Rice, S., *Walters, N., *Pierce, M., Winter, S.R., & *Milner, M.N. (2018). The effects of positive and negative Information on consumers’ willingness to ride in a driverless vehicle. Transport Policy, 72, 218-224. Exhibited in Elsevier Special Article Collection on the Human Side of Autonomous Driving.

33.      *Anania, E.C., Rice, S., Winter, S.R., *Milner, M.N., *Walters, N.W., & *Pierce, M. (2018). Why people are not willing to let their children ride on driverless school buses: A gender and nationality comparison. Social Sciences, 7(3), 1-17. doi: 10.3390/socsci7030034

34.      Rice, S., *Tamilselvan, G., Winter, S.R., *Milner, M.N., *Anania, E.C., *Sperlak, L., & *Marte, D. A. (2018). Public perception of UAS privacy concerns: A gender comparison. Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems, 6(1), 1-17. doi: https://doi.org/10.1139/juvs-2017-0011

35.      Rice, S. & Winter, S. R. (2018). To drive or fly: Will driverless cars significantly disrupt commercial airline travel? The International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace, 5(1), 1-9.

36.      Winter, S.R., Milner, M.N., Rice, S., Bush, D., Marte, D.A., Adkins, E., Roccasecca, A., Rosser, T.G., & Tamilselvan, G. (2018). Pilot performance comparison between electronic and paper instrument approach charts. Safety Science, 103, 280-286.

37.      Rice, S., Winter, S.R., Doherty, S. & *Milner, M.N. (2017). Advantages and disadvantages of using internet-based survey methods in aviation-related research. Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering, 7(1), 58-65.

38.      Rice, S., Winter, S.R., *Tamilselvan, G., & *Milner, M.N. (2017). Attitudes toward controlled rest in position (CRIP): A gender comparison between pilots and non-pilots. International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace, 4(3), 1-33.

39.      Coyne, B, Rice, S., Winter, S.R., *Tamilselvan, G. & Drechsel, P. (2017). Simulation challenges: Student perception of air traffic control simulation. International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace, 4(3), 1-27

40.      Winter, S.R., Rice, S., *Milner, M.N., Coyne, W., Lauth, M., & Rinkinen, C. (2017). A conceptual model for a Universal Severity of Emergency Report (USER): An example in aviation. International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace, 4(3), 1-10.

41.      *Rains, T., Winter, S.R., Rice, S., *Milner, M., *Bledsaw, Z., & *Anania, E.C. (2017). Biofuel and commercial aviation: Will consumers pay more for it? International Journal of Sustainable Aviation, 3(3), 217-232.

42.      *Mehta, R., Rice, S., Winter, S.R., & *Eudy, M. (2017). Perceptions of cockpit configurations: A culture and gender analysis. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 27(1-2), 57-63.

43.      Winter, S. R., Rice, S., *Rains, T., *Milner, M., & *Mehta, R. (2017). A longitudinal study on the alteration of consumer perceptions and the use of pilot medication. Journal of Air Transport Management, 59, 100-106.

44.    *Mehta, R., Rice, S., Winter, S. R., & Buza, P. (2017). Cabin depressurization as a hijacking mitigation tactic: A consumer perceptions study. Collegiate Aviation Review International, 35(1), 13-24.

45.    Winter, S. R., Rice, S., *Friedenreich, K., *Mehta, R., & *Kaiser, B. (2017). Passenger perceptions toward the federal flight deck officer program and their willingness to fly. Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors, 7(1), 7-17.

46.    Rice, S., Winter, S. R., *Mehta, R., *Winter, R., & Rice, A. (in press). Consumer perceptions of aircraft safety scale (C-PASS): An empirically developed scale for American consumers. The Technology Collection.

47.    Rice, S., Winter, S. R., Deaton, J. E., & Cremer, I. (2016). What are the predictors of system-wide trust loss in transportation automation? Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering 6(1), 108.

48.    Winter, S. R., Rice, S., *Mehta, R., *Winter, R., *Reid, K., & Cremer, I. (2016). Using system-wide trust theory to make predictions about trust in transportation automation. Journal of Technologies and Human Usability, 12(2), 1-11.

49.    *Remy, B., Winter, S. R., & Rice, S. (2016). Consumer trust in pilots part 2: An affective perspective. The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social and Community Studies, (11)2, 35-45.

50.    Winter, S. R., Rice, S., *Tamilselvan, G., & *Tokarski, R. (2016). Mission-based citizen views on UAV usage and privacy: An affective perspective. Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems 4, 1-11 doi: 10.1139/juvs-2015-0031.


Dr. Winter worked for Cirrus Aircraft in the Flight Standards and Operations Department, where he managed the company check flight program. He was responsible for the oversight of over 100 company pilots and provided international flight standards support and aircraft training in locations such as France, Germany, UK, Australia, Brazil, and South Africa. Dr. Winter also served as a technical writer where he helped develop training manuals and materials for customer and employee pilots. He also worked with customers of new Cirrus Aircraft to provide training and aircraft ferrying services.

  • Airline Transport Pilot
  • Certified Flight Instructor
  • Certified Flight Instructor Instrument
  • Multi-Engine Flight Instructor