Stephen Rice

Professor of Human Factors
Human Factors and Behavioral Neurobiology
Daytona College of Arts & Sciences
Daytona Beach campus


Dr. Stephen Rice was born and raised in Indonesia. He is currently a Professor in the Human Factors and Behavioral Neurobiology Department at Embry Riddle Aeronautical University. He received his PhD in Engineering Psychology (Aviation Human Factors) from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 2006. Dr. Rice began his academic career at the University of Illinois, working under Dr. Christopher Wickens on research involving unmanned aerial systems (UAS). The primary focus was trust in automation, largely from the perspective of the UAS operator. Following that, he was faculty at New Mexico State University, where he continued his work on UAS. While at NSMU, he also became interested in the intersections between aviation and social psychology, and began researching consumer perceptions of autonomous aircraft. In 2013, Dr. Rice moved to the Florida Institute of Technology, where he continued his research in consumer perceptions, focusing on both manned and unmanned aircraft. An additional line of research developed around aviation sustainability, biofuels and green airports. In 2016, Dr. Rice moved to Embry-Riddle, where he continues his research. He has also branched out into researching the public’s willingness to interact with a variety of autonomous vehicles as well as medical and dental robotics. Dr. Rice has completed over $2 million in funded research as the PI or Co-PI. 



  • Ph.D. - Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology, University of Illinois System : Urbana-Champaign
  • M.A. - Master of Arts in Psychology, University of Illinois System : Urbana-Champaign

  • PSY 101: Introduction to Psychology
  • PSY 310: Sensation & Perception


Selected work from the past five years (please visit my Google Scholar site for a complete list):

* denotes student or junior author


Trade Publications


Rice, S. (2019, October). 10 Ways That Police Use Drones To Protect And Serve. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/stephenrice1/2019/10/07/10-ways-that-police-use-drones-to-protect-and-serve/#5d4c2e3f6580

Rice, S. (2019, September). Are Americans Warming Up To A Return Of The Boeing 737 MAX? Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/stephenrice1/2019/09/17/are-americans-warming-up-to-a-return-of-the-boeing-737-max/#24c510dcc6e5

Rice, S. (2019, September). Three Arguments For And Against Eliminating The Co-Pilot. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/stephenrice1/2019/09/06/three-arguments-for-and-against-eliminating-the-co-pilot/#7d4dcda1b9b5

Rice, S. (2019, August). Obnoxious Behavior On Airplanes Has Serious Legal Consequences. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/stephenrice1/2019/08/15/acting-out-on-airplanes-can-make-you-famous-and-jobless/#5f51f29b209a

Rice, S. (2019, July). Americans Want A Shorter Leash On Emotional Support Animals On Planes. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/stephenrice1/2019/07/30/americans-want-a-shorter-leash-on-therapy-animal-travel-policies/#6b75cad428da

Rice, S. & Winter, S.R. (2019, June). Driverless cars are going to disrupt the airline industry. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/driverless-cars-are-going-to-disrupt-the-airline-industry-118380

Rice, S. (2019, June). The Public Supports Sustainable Aviation And They Are Willing Pay For It. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/stephenrice1/2019/06/05/the-public-supports-sustainable-aviation-and-they-are-willing-pay-for-it/#1a1787ab7282

*Winter, S.R. & Rice, S. (2019, June). Pilots sleeping in the cockpit could improve airline safety, The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/pilots-sleeping-in-the-cockpit-could-improve-airline-safety-117139

*Milner, M. & Rice, S. (2019, May). Robotic health care is coming to a hospital near you. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/robotic-health-care-is-coming-to-a-hospital-near-you-116236

Rice, S. & *Milner, M. (2019, April). Don’t shoot! That drone overhead probably isn’t invading your privacy. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/dont-shoot-that-drone-overhead-probably-isnt-invading-your-privacy-114701

Rice, S. & *Winter, S.R. (2019, March). Despite consumer worries, the future of aviation will be more automated. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/despite-consumer-worries-the-future-of-aviation-will-be-more-automated-113807

Rice, S. (2019, March). The Public Is Taking A Wait And See Attitude On The 737 MAX. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/stephenrice1/2019/03/16/the-public-is-taking-a-wait-and-see-attitude-on-the-737-max/#aab01fc76bb4

Rice, S. (2019, March). Aviation Needs More Women On The Flight Deck - And In All Roles. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/stephenrice1/2019/03/11/aviation-needs-more-women-on-the-flight-deck-and-in-all-roles/#5145a24cc80e

Rice, S. (2019, February). What Should Pilots Be Allowed To Do To Stop A Hijacking? Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/stephenrice1/2019/02/18/what-should-pilots-be-allowed-to-do-during-a-hijacking/#55993af9402d

Rice, S. (2019), February). Eyes in the Sky: The Public Has Privacy Concerns About Drones. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/stephenrice1/2019/02/04/eyes-in-the-sky-the-public-has-privacy-concerns-about-drones/#59c0ccf86984

Rice, S. (2019, January). How Do You Feel About Pilots Napping In The Cockpit During Flight? Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/stephenrice1/2019/01/21/how-do-you-feel-about-pilots-napping-in-the-cockpit-during-flight/#61bdf19ad08b

Rice, S. (2019, January). Would You Fly on a Plane Without a Human Pilot? Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/stephenrice1/2019/01/07/would-you-fly-on-a-plane-without-a-human-pilot/#301edb3d2518

*Keebler, J.R., Rice, S., *Winter, S., & McMullan, J. (2018). Driverless rigs: Survey measures provider perceptions of self-driving ambulances. Journal of Emergency Medical Services. Pg. 24-25.

Rice, S. & *Winter, S.R. (2018). To drive or fly: Will driverless cars significantly disrupt commercial airline travel? International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace, 5(1), 1-9.


Peer-Reviewed Publications


Autonomous Systems (UAS, UAV, Drones, Driverless Vehicles, Medical Robots, etc.)


*Milner, M. N., *Anania, E. C., *Candelaria-Oquendo, K., Rice, S., & Winter, S. R., & *Ragbir, N. (accepted). Patient perceptions of new robotic technologies in clinical restorative dentistry. Journal of Medical Systems.

​Rice, S. & Winter, S. R. (2019). Do gender and age affect willingness to ride in driverless vehicles: If so, then why? Technology in Society, 58.

*Milner, M. N., Rice, S., *Winter, S. R., & *Anania, E. C. (Accepted). The effect of political affiliation on support for police drone monitoring. Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems.

*Anania, E.C., Rice, S., *Pierce, M., *Winter, S.R., *Capps, J., *Walters, N. & *Milner, M. (accepted). Public support for police drone missions depends on political affiliation and neighborhood demographics. Technology in Society.

Rice, S., *Winter, S. R., Mehta, R., Keebler, J. R., *Baugh, B. S., *Anania, E. C., & *Milner, M. N. (Accepted). Does length of ride, gender or nationality affect willingness to ride in a driverless ambulance. Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems.

*Winter, S. R., Rice, S., Mehta, R., *Walters, N. W., *Pierce, M. B., *Anania, E. C., *Milner, M. N., & *Rao, N. (Accepted). Do Americans differ in their willingness to ride in a driverless bus? Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems.

Rice, S., *Winter, S.R., Mehta, R. & *Ragbir, N. (2019). What type of person is willing to fly in an autonomous commercial airplane? A regression analysis and model fit. Journal of Air Transport Management, 75, 131-138

*Marte, D. A., *Anania, E. C., Rice, S., Mehta, R., *Milner, M. N., *Winter, S. R., *Walters, N., *Capps, J., & *Ragbir, N. (2018). Privacy concerns about UAS missions. Journal of Unmanned Aerial Systems, 4(1), 61-70.

*Anania, E.C., Rice, S., *Walters, N., *Pierce, M., *Winter, S. R., & *Milner, M. N. (2018). The effects of positive and negative Information on consumers’ willingness to ride in a driverless vehicle. Transport Policy, 72, 218-224. [Exhibited in Elsevier Special Article Collection on the Human Side of Autonomous Driving]

*Winter, S.R., *Keebler, J. R., Rice, S., *Mehta, R., & *Baugh, B.S. (2018). Patient perceptions on the use of an autonomous emergency medical transport: An affective perspective. Transportation Research Part F, 58, 431-441.

*Ragbir, N. K., *Baugh, B. S., Rice, S., & *Winter, S. R. (2018). How nationality, weather, wind, and distance affect consumer willingness to fly in autonomous airplanes. Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering, 8(1), 2-10.

Rice, S., *Tamilselvan, G., *Winter, S. R., *Milner, M. N., *Anania, E. C., *Sperlak, L., & *Marte, D. A. (2018). Public perception of UAS privacy concerns: A gender comparison. Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems, 6(1), 1-17.

*Mehta, R., Rice, S., *Winter, S.R., & *Eudy, M. (2017). Perceptions of cockpit configurations: A culture and gender analysis. International Journal of Aerospace Psychology, 27(1-2), 57-63.

*Winter, S. R., Rice, S., *Tamilselvan, G., & *Tokarski, R. (2016). Mission-based consumer perceptions on UAV usage and privacy: An affective perspective. Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems. 4(2), 125-135.

*Winter, S. R., Rice, S., *Mehta, R., *Cremer, I., *Reid, K. M., *Rosser, T. R., & *Moore, J. C. (2015). Indian and American consumer perceptions of cockpit configuration. Journal of Air Transport Management, 42, 226-231.

Rice, S. & *Winter, S.R. (2015). Which emotions mediate the relationship between type of pilot configuration and willingness to fly? Journal of Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors, 5, 83-92.

Rice, S., *Kraemer, K., *Winter, S.R., *Mehta, R., *Dunbar, V., *Rosser, T. & *Moore, J. (2014). Passengers from India and the United States have differential opinions about autonomous auto-pilots for commercial flights. International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace,1(1), 1-12.



Automation


*Winter, S.R., *Milner, M., *Anania, E., Rice, S., *Walters, N., *Garcia, D. & *Baugh, B. (2019). Examining the perception and effectiveness of a system awareness briefing during cruise flight. Collegiate Aviation Review International, 37(1), 1-18.

*Mehta, R., *Chauhan, B., *Edwards, M., Rosser, T., Dunbar, V., & Rice, S. (2019). Does a SWT reverse contagion effect exist from humans to automation. Collegiate Aviation Review International, 37(1).

*Winter, S.R., *Milner, M., Rice, S., *Bush, D., *Marte, D., *Adkins, E., *Roccasecca, A., *Tamilselvan, G., & Rosser, T. (2018). A performance comparison between electronic and paper instrument approach charts. Safety Science, 103, 280-286.

*Mehta, R. & Rice, S. (2016). System-wide trust: A possible contagion effect. Collegiate Aviation Review International, 34(1), 12-34.

Rice, S., *Winter, S. R., Deaton, J. E., & *Cremer, I. (2016). What are the predictors of system-wide trust loss in transportation automation? Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering 6(1), 1-8.

*Winter, S. R., Rice, S., *Mehta, R., *Winter, R., *Reid, K., & *Cremer, I. (2016). Using system-wide trust theory to make predictions about trust in transportation automation. Journal of Technologies and Human Usability, 12(2), 1-11.

Bliss, J.P., Rice, S., *Hunt, G., & *Geels, K. (2014). What are close calls? A proposed taxonomy to inform risk communication research. Safety Science, 61, 21-28.

*Mehta, R., Rice, S., *Winter, S.R. (2014). Examining the relationship between familiarity and reliability of automation in the cockpit. Collegiate Aviation Review, 32(2), 1-13.

*Lee, T. & Rice, S. (2014). Educational technology and equity: Students access to and use of computers in low-socioeconomic and middle-class socioeconomic schools. International Journal of Technologies in Learning, 20(3), 43-60.

Rice, S., *Graves, W., *Stauble, M. & *Winter, S. (2014). Are people accurate at self-assessing their consistency of attitudes towards automation? International Journal of Technologies and Human Usability, 19(1), 9-16.


Aviation Sustainability


*Milner, M., Rice, S. & *Rice, C. (in press). Support for environmentally-friendly airports influenced by political affiliation and social identity. Technology in Society

*Winter, S. R., *Thropp, J. E., & Rice, S. (in press). What factors predict a consumer’s support of environmental sustainability in aviation? A multi-model analysis. The International Journal of Sustainable Aviation.

*Milner, M. N., *Bush, D. Z., *Anania, E. C., *Ito, T., *Marte, D. A., Rice, S., & *Winter, S. R. (in press). Cultural and political attitudes towards paying to support airport sustainability projects. International Journal of Sustainable Aviation.

*Walters, N. W., Rice, S., *Winter, S. R., *Baugh, B. S., *Ragbir, N. K., *Anania, E. C., *Capps, J., *Milner, M. N. (2018). Consumer willingness to pay for new airports that use renewable resources. The International Journal of Sustainable Aviation, 4(2), 79-98.

*Rains, T., *Winter, S.R., Rice, S., *Milner, M. *Bledsaw, Z. & *Anania, E. (2017). Biofuel and commercial aviation: Will consumer pay more for it? International Journal of Sustainable Aviation, 3(3). 217-232.

*Cremer, I., Rice, S., *Michaels, A. & Oyman, K. (2016). A brief aviation sustainable practices attitude scale: Establishing validity and reliability. International Journal of Sustainable Aviation, 2(3).

*Cremer, I., Rice, S., *Michaels, S. & Oyman, K. (2015). Creating a valid and reliable perception of airport sustainability scale (PASS). International Journal of Sustainable Aviation, 1(4).

*Mehta, R., Rice, S., Carstens, D., *Cremer, I. & Oyman, K. (2015).  A brief intermodal rail network (IRN) scale: Establishing validity and reliability. Journal of Sustainable Development, 8(6), 243-253.

*Cremer, I. & Rice, S. (2015). Which emotions mediate the relationship between type of water recycling projects and likelihood of using green airports? International Journal of Sustainable Aviation, 1(4).

*Cremer, I., Rice, S. & *Winter, S. (2015). Attitudes toward sustainability between Indians and Americans on water reuse for different purposes at airports. International Journal of Sustainable Aviation, 1(3), 234-244




  • Named a 2015 Difference Maker by the Office of the Chief Operating Officer (Florida Tech)
  • Recipient of the 2012 Early Career Award given by the University Research Council for Exceptional Achievements in Creative Scholarly Activity (NMSU)
    • University-wide award given to 2-4 faculty members each year
  • Sole Recipient of the 2010 Greek Life Outstanding Professor of the Year Award (NMSU)
    • University-wide award given to 1 faculty member each year
  • Sole Recipient of the 2006 DSO Distinguished Teaching Award (University of Illinois)
    • University-wide award given to 1 faculty or graduate student (not every year)
  • Winner of the 2009 Jerome H. Ely Human Factors Article Award
    • Award given to the best article of the year in Human Factors Journal
  • 2006 University of Illinois List of Excellent Instructors
    • Recognizes the top 2-3% of instructors each year
  • Sole Recipient of the Ralph E. Flexman 2003 Master’s Thesis Award
    • Departmental award given to 1 graduate student each year
  • Sole Recipient of the 2001 Outstanding Academic Achievement and Distinguished Service Award (Rollins College)
    • College award given to 1 undergraduate student each year
  • Nominated for 2010 University Research Council Early Career Award (NMSU)
  • Nominated for the 2010 Patricia Christmore Teaching Award (NMSU)